Subject: Calculus
Table Of Mathematical Symbols
Most Commonly Used Mathematical Symbols  
Symbol 
Common Name 
Significance 
Examples 
Pronounced as 
+ 
addition; positive sign 
symbolizes addition of quantities 
4+6 = 10 
add; summed with; plus 

subtraction; 
subtraction of quantities; 
4  6 =  2 
minus; negative; 
\times 
multiplication; cross product 
signifies the multiplication of two quantities; 
2\times3=6; A\times B = C 
times; cross 
\div 
division (Obelus) 
means the quotient or division of quantities 
6\div 2 = 3 
divide; divided by 
\pm 
plusminus 
shortcut for the {addition,subtraction} of quantities; 
4\pm 2 = 6, 2 
plusminus 
= 
equal sign 
signifies equality and the sameness 
A is equal to B > A = B 
is equal to; is the same as 
\neq 
inequality 
a ≠ b means that a and b do not represent the same thing or value. 
1 ≠ 2 
is not equal to; does not equal 
> 
strict inequality 
when a > b, it signifies that a is greater than b. 
2 > 1 
greater than 
>> 
very strict inequality 
when a >> b, it signifies a is much greater than b. 
100000 >> 1 
is much greater than 
\geq 

when a \geq b, it signifies a is greater than or equal to b. 
6,7 \geq 6 
is greater than or equal to 
\sqrt{} 
square root 
\sqrt{a} means a nonnegative number when multiplied by itself results a. 
\sqrt{4} = 2 
the square root of 
! 
factorial 
x! means the product 1 × 2 × ... × x. 
6! = 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 × 6 = 720 
factorial 
\approx 
approximately equal 
signifies an approximated equality between two quantities; 
g\approx 9.8 m/s*s 
is approximately equal to 
\cong 
congruence 
signifies that a two quantities has the same measurement; 
a\cong b 
is congruent to 
\int 
indefinite integral; 
∫ f(x) dx means a function whose derivative is f. 
∫(x^2 + 1) dx = x3/3 + x + C 
indefinite integral of; 
\oint 
contour integral; 
used to denote a single integration over a closed curve or loop. 
If C is a Jordan curve about 0, then \oint_{C} \frac{1}{z}dz = 2\pi i 
contour integral of 

gradient; 
\nabla f(x,y,z) is the partial derivatives of f with respect to x, y, and z. 
\nabla \cdot \bar{f} = \frac{\partial f_{x}}{\partial x} + \frac{\partial f_{y}}{\partial y}+ \frac{\partial f_{z}}{\partial z} 
del, gradient of; 
\partial 
partial derivative 
\frac{\partial f}{\partial x} denotes partial derivative of f with respect to x. 
Assume: f(x,y)=x^2 +2y, 
partial 
\Delta 
delta 
used to denote a noninfinitesimal change in a value 
\Delta f means a very small change in f. 
delta, change in 

Dirac delta function 
if x=0, then \delta (x)=\infty , if x\neq 0, then \delta (x)=\infty ; 
\delta (x) 
Dirac delta of 


a constant widely used in many formulas especially circles; obtained by dividing the circumference to the diameter of a circle. 

pi 